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Microscopie non-linéaire pour l'imagerie des cordes vocales

Romain Deterre

Master's thesis (2012)

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Abstract

The vocal cords are two folds of epithelial tissues located in the larynx and are involvedin production of the human voice. Despite their apparent simplicity, their internal structureis complex. Each fold can be divided into several layers with dierent mechanical properties.The gold standard for studying their structure { histology { has the inconvenience of beingvery invasive.Non-linear microscopy is an optical imaging technique which allows images to be takenin depth within samples in a non invasive manner. It also oers intrinsic contrasts, allowingthe identication of certain brous proteins { elastin and collagen { which are responsiblefor the mechanical properties of epithelious tissues.The main goal of this research project was to assess nonlinear microscopy's performancesfor vocal fold imaging. The study has been broken down in two separate tasks. The rst onewas to evaluate the nonlinear modalities contrast against histology. For that purpose, wechose to rst take images of thin samples and compare them to the corresponding histologicalslides. The second task was to make tests to transcribe the results obtained to in vivoimaging.A custom-built nonlinear imaging system was used for these experiments. It was developpedto allow acquisition of wide-eld images. A C++ based software was developpedto control the microscope and allow treatment and visualization of the images. After beingbuilt, the system was further tested to check its performances in comparison with thetheoretical limit as described in the literature.Thin slices of vocal folds were obtained from the team of Pr Christopher J. Hartnick fromMassachusetts Eye and Ear Inrmary, Harvard Medical School. Specialists from his teamanalysed the histological samples to extract structural data from the vocal folds. A goodcorrelation was measured between histological and nonlinear data.A rst step in evaluating the possibility for translating these results towards in vivoimaging was performed during this project. A swine's larynx was obtained, and vocal foldswere extracted for imaging purposes. This experiment showed that it is indeed possible tolocalize various macrostructures of the tissues with nonlinear microscopy.

Résumé

Les cordes vocales sont deux replis de tissus loges dans le larynx et essentiels a la phonation.Malgre l'apparente simplicite de leur principe de fonctionnement, leur structure interneest complexe. Chaque corde est composee de dierentes couches de tissus aux proprietesmecaniques variables. La technique de reference pour les etudier, l'histologie, presente l'inconvenient d'^etre tres invasive.La microscopie non-lineaire est une technique d'imagerie optique qui permet d'imager desechantillons en profondeur de maniere non-invasive. De plus, elle ore des modes de contrastequi sont interessants pour visualiser des proteines breuses, l'elastine et le collagene, en partieresponsables des proprietes mecaniques des tissus epitheliaux.Ce projet de recherche s'interesse a evaluer la capacite de la microscopie non-lineairea fournir des performances similaires a l'histologie dans le cadre de l'imagerie des cordesvocales.L'objectif principal est de developper un microscope non-lineaire pour evaluer la capacitede ce type d'imagerie a observer des cordes vocales. La demarche choisie est de faire dansun premier temps des images de coupes nes de cordes vocales pour les comparer a unetechnique de reference, l'histologie. Dans un second temps, des tests visant a transcrire lesresultats obtenus dans le cadre de l'imagerie in vivo ont ete eectues.Un systeme d'imagerie non-lineaire multimodal a ete concu speciquement pour permettreles experiences realisees pendant ce projet. Il a en particulier ete equipe pour prendre desimages a grand champ de coupes de cordes vocales. Pour ce faire, il a fallu de creer unprogramme de contr^ole du microscope, et un autre de traitement des images obtenues. Apresavoir ete assemble, le systeme a ete teste pour verier que ses performances s'approchent deslimites theoriques denies dans la litterature.Des coupes nes de cordes vocales ont ete obtenues aupres de l'equipe du Pr. ChristopherJ. Hartnick du Massachusetts Eye and Ear Inrmary, Harvard Medical School. Lesspecialistes de cette equipe ont analyse les images histologiques pour extraire de l'informationstructurelle sur les cordes vocales. Une correlation a ete obtenue entre ces informations et lesanalyses faites sur les images non-lineaires des m^emes echantillons.Une premiere etape pour evaluer la possibilite de transcrire ces resultats vers l'imageriein vivo a ete realisee durant ce projet. Un larynx de porc a ete obtenu et les cordes vocalesen ont ete extraites pour faire des images. Cette experience a montre qu'il est possible delocaliser les dierentes macrostructures des cordes vocales avec la microscopie non-lineaire.
Department: Institut de génie biomédical
Program: Génie biomédical
Academic/Research Directors: Caroline Boudoux
PolyPublie URL: https://publications.polymtl.ca/966/
Institution: École Polytechnique de Montréal
Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2013 13:31
Last Modified: 17 Nov 2022 17:04
Cite in APA 7: Deterre, R. (2012). Microscopie non-linéaire pour l'imagerie des cordes vocales [Master's thesis, École Polytechnique de Montréal]. PolyPublie. https://publications.polymtl.ca/966/

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