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β-D-glucuronidase activity triggered monitoring of fecal contamination using microbial and chemical source tracking markers at drinking water intakes

Mounia Hachad, Jean-Baptiste Burnet, Émile Sylvestre, Sung Vo Duy, Richard Villemur, Sébastien Sauvé, Michèle Prévost, Jian Qiu, Xiaoli Pang and Sarah Dorner

Article (2024)

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Abstract

ntense rainfall and snowmelt events may affect the safety of drinking water, as large quantities of fecal material can be discharged from storm or sewage overflows or washed from the catchment into drinking water sources. This study used β-D-glucuronidase activity (GLUC) with microbial source tracking (MST) markers: human, bovine, porcine mitochondrial DNA markers (mtDNA) and human-associated Bacteroidales HF183 and chemical source tracking (CST) markers including caffeine, carbamazepine, theophylline and acetaminophen, pathogens (Giardia, Cryptosporidium, adenovirus, rotavirus and enterovirus), water quality indicators (Escherichia coli, turbidity) and hydrometeorological data (flowrate, precipitation) to assess the vulnerability of 3 drinking water intakes (DWIs) and identify sources of fecal contamination. Water samples were collected under baseline, snow and rain events conditions in urban and agricultural catchments (Québec, Canada). Dynamics of E. coli, HF183 and WWMPs were similar during contamination events, and concentrations generally varied over 1 order of magnitude during each event. Elevated human-associated marker levels during events demonstrated that urban DWIs were impacted by recent contamination from an upstream municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF). In the agricultural catchment, mixed fecal pollution was observed with the occurrences and increases of enteric viruses, human bovine and porcine mtDNA during peak contaminating events. Bovine mtDNA qPCR concentrations were indicative of runoff of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to the DWI from diffuse sources following rain events. This study demonstrated that the suitability of a given MST or CST indicator depend on river and catchment characteristics. The sampling strategy using continuous online GLUC activity coupled with MST and CST markers analysis was a more reliable source indicator than turbidity to identify peak events at drinking water intakes.

Uncontrolled Keywords

Drinking water sources; Fecal source tracking; Event-based sampling; β-D-glucuronidase.

Subjects: 1000 Civil engineering > 1000 Civil engineering
Department: Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering
Research Center: CIEP - Industrial Chair on Drinking Water
Funders: NSERC Industrial Chair funded on Drinking Water, Canadian Research Chair on Source Water Protection
PolyPublie URL: https://publications.polymtl.ca/57588/
Journal Title: Water Research (vol. 254)
Publisher: Elsevier BV
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2024.121374
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2024.121374
Date Deposited: 25 Mar 2024 15:22
Last Modified: 06 Apr 2024 18:00
Cite in APA 7: Hachad, M., Burnet, J.-B., Sylvestre, É., Duy, S. V., Villemur, R., Sauvé, S., Prévost, M., Qiu, J., Pang, X., & Dorner, S. (2024). β-D-glucuronidase activity triggered monitoring of fecal contamination using microbial and chemical source tracking markers at drinking water intakes. Water Research, 254, 121374 (10 pages). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2024.121374

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