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Separation and analysis of microplastics and nanoplastics in complex environmental samples

Brian Nguyen, Dominique Claveau-Mallet, Laura M. Hernandez, Elvis Genbo Xu, Jeffrey M. Farner and Nathalie Tufenkji

Article (2019)

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Cite this document: Nguyen, B., Claveau-Mallet, D., Hernandez, L. M., Xu, E. G., Farner, J. M. & Tufenkji, N. (2019). Separation and analysis of microplastics and nanoplastics in complex environmental samples. Accounts of chemical research, 52(4), p. 858-866. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00602
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Abstract

The vast amount of plastic waste emitted into the environment and the increasing concern of potential harm to wildlife has made microplastic and nanoplastic pollution a growing environmental concern. Plastic pollution has the potential to cause both physical and chemical harm to wildlife directly, or via sorption, concentration, and transfer of other environmental contaminants to the wildlife that ingest plastic. Small particles of plastic pollution, referred to as microplastics (>100 nm and <5 mm) or nanoplastics (<100 nm), can form due to the fragmentation of larger pieces of plastics. These small particles are especially concerning due to their high specific surface area for sorption of contaminants as well as their potential to translocate in the bodies of organisms. These same small particles are challenging to separate and identify in environmental samples as their size makes handling and observation difficult. As a result, our understanding of the environmental prevalence of nanoplastics and microplastics is limited. Generally, the smaller the size of the plastic particle, the more difficult it is to separate from environmental samples. Currently employed passive density and size separation techniques to isolate plastics from environmental samples are not well suited to separate microplastics and nanoplastics. Passive flotation is hindered by the low buoyancy of small particles as well as the difficulty of handling small particles on the surface of flotation media. Here, we suggest exploring alternative techniques borrowed from other fields of research to improve separation of the smallest plastic particles. These techniques include adapting active density separation (centrifugation) from cell biology and taking advantage of surface interaction-based separations from analytical chemistry. Furthermore, plastic pollution is often challenging to quantify in complex matrices such as biological tissues and wastewater. Biological and wastewater samples are important matrices that represent key points in the fate and sources of plastic pollution, respectively. In both kinds of samples, protocols need to be optimized to increase throughput, reduce contamination potential, and avoid destruction of plastics during sample processing. To this end, we recommend adapting digestion protocols to match the expected composition of the non-plastic material as well as taking measures to reduce and account for contamination. Once separated, plastics in an environmental sample should ideally be characterized either visually or chemically. With existing techniques, microplastics and nanoplastics are difficult to characterize or even detect. Their low mass and size provide limited signal for visual, vibrational spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric analyses. Each of these techniques involve tradeoffs in throughput, spatial resolution and sensitivity. To accurately identify and completely quantify microplastics and nanoplastics in environmental samples, multiple analytical techniques applied in tandem are likely required.

Open Access document in PolyPublie
Subjects: 1400 Génie minier et minéral > 1400 Génie minier et minéral
1500 Génie de l'environnement > 1501 Qualité de l'eau, pollution
Department: Département des génies civil, géologique et des mines
Research Center: Non applicable
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2020 16:38
Last Modified: 17 Jul 2020 01:20
PolyPublie URL: https://publications.polymtl.ca/5304/
Document issued by the official publisher
Journal Title: Accounts of chemical research (vol. 52, no. 4)
Publisher: ACS Publications
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00602

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