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Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides

Xiaojie Ren, Xinhe Zhao, François Turcotte, Jean-Sébastien Deschênes, Réjean Tremblay and Mario Jolicoeur

Article (2017)

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Cite this document: Ren, X., Zhao, X., Turcotte, F., Deschênes, J.-S., Tremblay, R. & Jolicoeur, M. (2017). Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides. Microbial Cell Factories, 16, p. 1-13. doi:10.1186/s12934-017-0633-9
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Abstract

Background: Microalgae have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids of high interest for the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and energy (e. g. biodiesel) industries. However, current lipid extraction methods show efficiency limitation and until now, extraction protocols have not been fully optimized for specific lipid compounds. The present study thus presents a novel lipid extraction method, consisting in the addition of a water treatment of biomass between the two-stage solvent extraction steps of current extraction methods. The resulting modified method not only enhances lipid extraction efficiency, but also yields a higher triacylglycerols (TAG) ratio, which is highly desirable for biodiesel production.Results: Modification of four existing methods using acetone, chloroform/methanol (Chl/Met), chloroform/methanol/H2O (Chl/Met/H2O) and dichloromethane/methanol (Dic/Met) showed respective lipid extraction yield enhancement of 72.3, 35.8, 60.3 and 60.9%. The modified acetone method resulted in the highest extraction yield, with 68.9 +/- 0.2% DW total lipids. Extraction of TAG was particularly improved with the water treatment, especially for the Chl/Met/H2O and Dic/Met methods. The acetone method with the water treatment led to the highest extraction level of TAG with 73.7 +/- 7.3 mu g/mg DW, which is 130.8 +/- 10.6% higher than the maximum value obtained for the four classical methods (31.9 +/- 4.6 mu g/mg DW). Interestingly, the water treatment preferentially improved the extraction of intracellular fractions, i. e. TAG, sterols, and free fatty acids, compared to the lipid fractions of the cell membranes, which are constituted of phospholipids (PL), acetone mobile polar lipids and hydrocarbons. Finally, from the 32 fatty acids analyzed for both neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL) fractions, it is clear that the water treatment greatly improves NL-to-PL ratio for the four standard methods assessed.Conclusion: Water treatment of biomass after the first solvent extraction step helps the subsequent release of intracellular lipids in the second extraction step, thus improving the global lipids extraction yield. In addition, the water treatment positively modifies the intracellular lipid class ratios of the final extract, in which TAG ratio is significantly increased without changes in the fatty acids composition. The novel method thus provides an efficient way to improve lipid extraction yield of existing methods, as well as selectively favoring TAG, a lipid of the upmost interest for biodiesel production.

Uncontrolled Keywords

Chlorella protothecoides; High TAG ratio; High extraction yield; Lipid extraction; Two-stage solvent extractions; Water treatment; Biofuels; Biomass; Cell Fractionation; Chlorella; Fatty Acids; Lipids; Liquid-Liquid Extraction; Methanol; Solvents; Triglycerides; Water; Biofuels; Fatty Acids; Lipids; Solvents; Triglycerides; Water; Methanol

Open Access document in PolyPublie
Subjects: 1800 Génie chimique > 1800 Génie chimique
1800 Génie chimique > 1802 Génie biochimique
Department: Département de génie chimique
Research Center: Autre
Funders: Fonds de recherche du Québec--Nature et technologies (FRQNT), CRSNG/NSERC
Grant number: RS-171172, 093865-RGPIN2014-04329
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2018 16:01
Last Modified: 15 Dec 2018 01:20
PolyPublie URL: https://publications.polymtl.ca/3533/
Document issued by the official publisher
Journal Title: Microbial Cell Factories (vol. 16)
Publisher: BioMed Central
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-017-0633-9

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