<  Back to the Polytechnique Montréal portal

Classical models may be a better explanation of the Jiuzhang 1.0 Gaussian Boson Sampler than its targeted squeezed light model

Javier Martínez-Cifuentes, K. M. Fonseca Romero and Nicolás Quesada

Article (2023)

Open Acess document in PolyPublie and at official publisher
Open Access to the full text of this document
Published Version
Terms of Use: Creative Commons Attribution
Download (1MB)
Show abstract
Hide abstract


Recently, Zhong et al. [1, 2] performed landmark Gaussian boson sampling experiments with up to 144 modes using threshold detectors. The authors claim to have achieved quantum computational advantage with the implementation of these experiments, named Jiuzhang 1.0 and Jiuzhang 2.0. Their experimental results are validated against several classical hypotheses and adversaries using tests such as the comparison of statistical correlations between modes, Bayesian hypothesis testing and the Heavy Output Generation (HOG) test. In this work we propose an alternative classical hypothesis for the validation of these experiments. We use the probability distribution of mixtures of coherent states sent into a lossy interferometer; these input mixed states, which we term squashed states, have vacuum fluctuations in one quadrature and excess fluctuations in the other. We find that for configurations in the high photon number density regime, the comparison of statistical correlations does not tell apart the ground truth of the experiment (two-mode squeezed states sent into an interferometer) from our alternative hypothesis. On the other hand, the Bayesian test indicates that, for all configurations excepting Jiuzhang 1.0, the ground truth is a more likely explanation of the experimental data than our alternative hypothesis. A similar result is obtained for the HOG test: for all configurations of Jiuzhang 2.0, the test indicates that the experimental samples have higher ground truth probability than the samples obtained from our alternative distribution; for Jiuzhang 1.0 the test is inconclusive. Our results provide a new hypothesis that should be considered in the validation of future GBS experiments, and shed light into the need to identify proper metrics to verify quantum advantage in the context of threshold GBS. Additionally, they indicate that a classical explanation of the Jiuzhang 1.0 experiment, lacking any quantum features, has not been ruled out.

Subjects: 3100 Physics > 3100 Physics
Department: Department of Engineering Physics
PolyPublie URL: https://publications.polymtl.ca/55095/
Journal Title: Quantum (vol. 7)
Publisher: Verein zur Förderung des Open Access Publizierens in den Quantenwissenschaften
DOI: 10.22331/q-2023-08-08-1076
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2023-08-08-1076
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2023 13:42
Last Modified: 11 Apr 2024 10:41
Cite in APA 7: Martínez-Cifuentes, J., Romero, K. M. F., & Quesada, N. (2023). Classical models may be a better explanation of the Jiuzhang 1.0 Gaussian Boson Sampler than its targeted squeezed light model. Quantum, 7, 1076 (20 pages). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2023-08-08-1076


Total downloads

Downloads per month in the last year

Origin of downloads


Repository Staff Only

View Item View Item