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The effect of altering the mechanical loading environment on the expression of bone regenerating molecules in cases of distraction osteogenesis

Mohammad M. Alzahrani, Emad A. Anam, Asim M. Makhdom, Isabelle Villemure and Reggie Charles Hamdy

Article (2014)

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Cite this document: Alzahrani, M. M., Anam, E. A., Makhdom, A. M., Villemure, I. & Hamdy, R. C. (2014). The effect of altering the mechanical loading environment on the expression of bone regenerating molecules in cases of distraction osteogenesis. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5. doi:10.3389/fendo.2014.00214
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Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical technique where gradual and controlled separation of two bony fragments following an osteotomy leads to the induction of new bone formation in the distracted gap. DO is used for limb lengthening, correction of bony deformities, and the replacement of bone loss secondary to infection, trauma, and tumors. Although DO gives satisfactory results in most cases, one major drawback of this technique is the prolonged period of time the external fixator has to be kept on until the newly formed bone consolidates thus leading to numerous complications. Numerous attempts at accelerating bone formation during DO have been reported. One specific approach is manipulation of the mechanical environment during DO by applying changes in the standard protocol of distraction. Attempts at changing this mechanical environment led to mixed results. Increasing the rate or applying acute distraction, led to poor bone formation in the distracted zone. On the other hand, the addition of compressive forces (such as weight bearing, alternating distraction with compression or by over-lengthening, and then shortening) has been reported to increase bone formation. It still remains unclear why these alterations may lead to changes in bone formation. While the cellular and molecular changes occurring during the standard DO protocol, specifically increased expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and bone morphogenic proteins have been extensively investigated, the literature is sparse on the changes occurring when this protocol is altered. It is the purpose of this article to review the pertinent literature on the changes in the expression of various proteins and molecules as a result of changes in the mechanical loading technique in DO and try to define potential future research directions.

Uncontrolled Keywords

bone regenerating molecule; bone regeneration; distraction osteogensis; growth factor; mechanical loading

Open Access document in PolyPublie
Subjects: 2100 Génie mécanique > 2100 Génie mécanique
5300 Biologie moléculaire > 5300 Biologie moléculaire
9000 Sciences médicales > 9000 Sciences médicales
Department: Département de génie mécanique
Research Center: Non applicable
Date Deposited: 29 Jan 2019 15:38
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2019 01:20
PolyPublie URL: https://publications.polymtl.ca/3455/
Document issued by the official publisher
Journal Title: Frontiers in Endocrinology (vol. 5)
Publisher: Frontiers
Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2014.00214


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